T.C. Sağlık Bakanlığı
İstanbul Sultan Abdülhamid Han
Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi

Hyperbaric Oxygen Center




Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) is a medical treatment method applied to a patient who is completely depressed in a pressure chamber by intermittently ventilating 100% oxygen. HBOT is a modern and scientific treatment method supported by 6000 denier studies.


What is the pressure chamber? How is HBOT applied?

Pressure chambers are cabinets that allow patients to breathe oxygen under pressure. There are two types of pressure chambers, single and multi-chamber. In single-chamber pressure chambers, pressure is usually increased by supplying pressurized oxygen, while in the multi-person pressure chamber, air is pressurized to increase pressure. Patients in single-person pressure rooms, while the oxygen in the cabin directly breathes, in multi-person pressure chambers, the patient breathes through an oxygen mask. In our country, a multi-person press room is usually used. There are windows on the sides of the pressure chamber, called the lumboz, and windows for the outside. Because of the presence of people, pressure chambers are manufactured according to some national and international standards. In the pressure chamber there are seats for the patients to sit comfortably. The patients on the stretcher can also receive treatment in the lying position. Having more than one patient inside is an advantage for people with fear of indoor. More importantly, multiple personality pressure rooms may be accompanied by a medical staff during treatment. During HBOT, the vast majority of patients normally breath 100% oxygen under 2-2.5 times the pressure of the atmospheric pressure we are in. Due to the possible side effects of oxygen, air circulation is given at regular intervals. The masks or capsules that are diseased must be properly worn so that oxygen can be obtained at the desired level.Thanks to the communication equipment of the pressure chambers it is possible to communicate continuously with patients during HBOT. Some pressure rooms have equipment that patients can listen to music and watch TV. Some safety precautions should be taken in the pressure chamber because of the high pressure of the pressure and therefore the oxygen partial pressure. HBOT will also be informed about safety measures for patients. There is a control panel outside the pressure chamber. Treatment is managed from this panel. The operator who uses the pressure room and the health personnel to accompany the illness are the specially trained personnel. In our country, HBOT applications according to the relevant legislation must be made by Underwater Medical and Hyperbaric Medical Experts.

What happens to the patients during treatment?

In the first minutes of treatment, called "diving", patients feel their pressure increase in their ears, just as they feel when landing on an airplane journey or downhill from high mountains. It tells how to equalize the pressure in the ears during the increased pressure of the disease. This is usually done simply by swallowing, or by closing the nose and blowing air. This is done only during the dive, until the treatment pressure. HBOT can be applied to patients of all ages. Patients enter the pressure room with special cotton clothes given to them.

When pressure begins to increase at the beginning of treatment, there may be some temperature increase in the pressure chamber. During treatment, the temperature returns to normal room temperature. At the end of treatment, the pressure is reduced, but the temperature is slightly reduced. The increase in pressure does not feel as if the patient is squeezed or overloaded. Using a mask or headgear at first may make the illness a bit strange, but in a short time it is familiar.

How long does the treatment last?

A HBOT session usually lasts 2 to 2.5 hours, depending on the disease and the patient. Most of the patients receive one session of treatment per day. However, in some emergencies, the number of daily sessions can be up to four. The total number of sessions varies according to the disease.

Does treatment have side effects?

The most common side effect is the effect of pressure change on the ear and sinuses. This is not dangerous and can be avoided by learning pressure equalization methods. Other side effects are very rare and can be listed as oxygen poisoning, claustrophobia (fear of staying in a sheltered place) and transient myopia. Common side effects are not serious.

a) Claustrophobia: Most patients do not have a problem in the pressure chamber. Some patients may take some time to get used to. Few patients are afraid to enter the pressure chamber and will not accept treatment. If the press room treatment is a vital prospect, treatment can be performed by providing the patient with some relaxing medicines.

b) Ear and sinus problems: Some people experience problems during pressure changes between the ears and sinuses and the outside, and the illness is taught by trained personnel to solve this problem. Patients should notify the inside assistant or outside operator when they feel discomfort during the pressure increase. If necessary, the problem is solved by stopping the pressure increase or reducing the pressure. Sometimes you may need to use medication to make an easy sync.

c) Lungs: Very long periods of exposure to oxygen may affect the lungs in patients with HBOT treatment, resulting in some complaints. Complaints such as burning, dryness, shortness of breath, dry cough may be seen in patients with pneumonia. If such symptoms occur, treatment will be interrupted and these complaints will disappear in a short time. These effects are very rare in current HBOT protocols.

d) Brain: High doses of HBOT treatments may cause oxygen intoxication in the central nervous system. This is very rare. When the central nervous system is exposed to oxygen poisoning, patients may develop anxiety, irritability, nausea and vomiting, ear tinnitus, especially facial muscles, numbness, numbness, tingling, and seizures at the advanced stage. When any of these symptoms are seen, oxygen breathing should be interrupted. Patients return to normal after a short time when oxygen is discontinued.

e) Eyes: Myopia (distant vision loss) may be seen in patients who have had HBOT for too long. This situation is temporary and the vision returns to normal after a short time after the treatment is discontinued.

f) Fire: There is a risk of fire if the partial pressure of oxygen in the pressure chamber is high. For this reason, patients are not allowed to enter the room with anything to create a spark. Patients should be informed about the measures to be taken against the fire before treatment. HBOT treatment is extremely safe if safety precautions are followed.

How does HBOT work?

During HBOT, all the body fluids of patients are dissolved in high oxygen. It provides oxygen to tissues that can not get enough oxygen thanks to dissolved oxygen in the calm and body fluids, which helps to heal diseases caused by oxygen deficiency. The environment that can not survive is caused by bacteria that cause some diseases. Helps reduce swelling in your tissues. It contributes to the healing of unhealed wounds due to oxygen deficiency. It contributes to the fight against infection.

In which diseases is HBOT used?

T. C. In the regulation on hyperbaric oxygen therapy published by the Ministry of Health on August 1, 2001, the following diseases were reported as HBOT indications. However, aseptic necrosis is not listed in this list, but there are also HBOT-applied diseases.

Decompression sickness (stress)
Air and gas embolism
Carbon monoxide, cyanide poisoning, acute smoke inhalation,
Gas gangrene
Soft touch necrotizing infections (subcutaneous, muscle, fascia, fascia)
Crush injuries, compartment syndrome and other acute traumatic ischemia.
Delayed wound healing (diabetic and non-diabetic)
Chronic refractory osteomyelitis
Excessive blood loss
Radiation necrosis
Holders of suspicious skin skulls and grafts
Thermal burns
Brain abscess
Anoxic encephalopathy
Sudden hearing loss
Retinal erter occlusion
Acute osteomyelitis of skull bones, sternum and vertebrae